I/O controller interface ICs (I²C) are integrated circuits (ICs) designed to provide a communications interface between peripheral devices and a microcontroller or central processing unit (CPU). These ICs enable devices to easily communicate, control, and monitor each other while minimizing system resources. These IC interfaces are most commonly used in low-cost, low-power systems, including portable applications such as mobile phones and wearables. I²C provides a cost-efficient and flexible two-wire serial bus protocol. The two-wire I²C features a clock line (SCL) and data line (SDA). The SCL line is used to synchronize data transactions, while the SDA line is the bi-directional serial data line. I²C allows for the connection of up to 129 devices. Each I²C device has its own unique 7-bit or 10-bit device address.